Richard S. Vosko

Musings on religion, art and architecture


Homily – 29 May 2016 – A Beautiful Church

The Last Supper by Tintoretto c. 1592

The Last Supper by Tintoretto c. 1592

Body and Blood of Christ C – 29 May 2016 – A Beautiful Church

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On the feast of Pentecost I referred to a first century architect who said buildings should be functional, stable and beautiful. I proposed then that the holy Spirit energizes us to act as a functional church. Last week, I suggested that, as part of a divine triangle, you and I can help make the church more stable. Today, I ask you to imagine with me the church, the mystical body and blood of Christ, as something beautiful to behold.

I have a large collection of images depicting the last supper where each artist provides slightly different insights about that meal. Parishioner and iconographer Jennifer Richard-Morrow quotes the artist Edgar Degas, “Art is not what you see, but what you make others see.”

One picture I have shows Jesus distributing hosts to the apostles who are kneeling down! Another depicts the twelve men seated around the table dressed in chasubles like the ones priests and bishops wear today. Neither painting provides us with a credible clue about what may have happened at that last supper.

The last supper painting by the late sixteenth century artist Tintoretto offers a more reasonable insight. [1] One sees not only twelve disciples but women and maybe children as well! I like this visual catechism because it suggests that Jesus gathered with disciples, family members and those who prepared and served the meal. It was a chavurah,  a small group of like-minded Jews similar those who assemble today to share communal experiences. (Note: Actually, those gathered for the last supper were most likely seated at a triclinium, a three-sided table.)

Scholars believe that Paul’s letters like the one we heard today provide sophisticated interpretations of the last supper. In Paul’s 1st century churches the meals were modeled on Greco-Roman banquets that ritualized social bonding. According to authors Smith and Taussig, Paul placed special emphasis on the power of the meal “to break down boundaries and create the kind of solidarity that should characterize what the church was to be.” [2] 

Over time the understanding of the last supper as a boundary breaking experience developed into a sacrifice offered by priests for the people who watched. The eucharist became an object of personal piety and eventually emerged as a unfortunate signpost that separated Catholics from other Christian denominations.

The Vatican Two Ecumenical Council helped us recover the sense of the eucharist as a sacrament of unity (SC III, B, 26). It is less about individual piety and more about the common good. Richard Rohr writes, God’s basic method of communicating is not through the saved individual, the rightly informed believer, or even personal careers in ministry. “The body of Christ is our Christian metaphor for this bonding.”

God communicates through all of us. One gets this sense in the Tintoretto painting. In the Mannerist style the artist used light and shadows to frame a beautiful supernatural atmosphere where the real and unreal, the world of the spirit and the perceptible world, can no longer be distinguished. It suggests that the heavenly place we long for is right here, right now. The world may not look like that so we have to finish this painting.

The beauty found in Tintoretto’s last supper is similar to the appeal of today’s gospel. Thousands gathered hungry to hear Jesus’ message. He charged his disciples to provide real food for them. He did not do it himself and the servings were not meager. They were bountiful because the people shared with others what they themselves brought to the event.

The body and blood of Christ is a celebration of the beauty of the church when all members bond by working together, by sharing what we bring to and receive from this sacramental event. The words “do this in memory of me” refer not only to a sacrificial meal but everything else Jesus did in his life — feed, heal, anoint, bless, forgive, save, love.

I am thinking about our food panty (here at St. Vincent de Paul Parish) as an expression of a response to this mandate of Jesus. It is where heavenly food and drink mix with groceries. Brendan Byrne puts it this way, the primary job of Jesus’s followers is to “minister the hospitality of God,” [3] How beautiful is that?

So there you have it. Our church is functional, stable and beautiful when you and I recognize the gifts of the Spirit given to each of us to strengthen the divine triangle. When we can do that much together we will be seen as a church that makes beauty and grace tangible and real for all.


  1.  The Last Supper by Tintoretto can be seen in the Basilica Di San Giorgio Maggiore, Venezia
  2.  Smith, D. and Taussig, H.  Many Tables: The Eucharist in the New Testament and Liturgy Today. (Eugene OR: Wipf & Stock, 1990)  69
  3.  Byrne, Brendan. The Hospitality of God: A Reading of Luke’s Gospel (Collegeville: Liturgical Press) 2000) 85


Homily – Trinity Sunday – 22 May 2016 -A Stable Trinitarian Church


Trinity Sunday C – 22 May 2016 – A Stable Trinitarian Church

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Last week on the feast of Pentecost I referenced a first century architect who said buildings should be functional, stable and beautiful. I proposed that the holy Spirit can energize us to act as a functional church. Today I ask you to imagine with me how the Triune God is the foundation for a stable church.

Buckminster Fuller was an idea man who worked in multiple fields —architecture, engineering, design. With a commitment to make the world function for the well-being of human beings he crossed conventional boundaries. He colored outside the lines. He used triangles rather than rectangles in his structures because they were more stable and would hold up better under pressure. 

Fuller’s perspectives were based on the principle of synergetics —  total system behavior unpredicted by the behavior of any isolated components. We function wholistically when our bodies, minds and souls are in synch working together more so than when they are not in synch. In this regard, Fuller understood God as a verb and not a noun. [1]  Fuller would have agreed with author Jason Derr who wrote that God is an action we bring to the world to make love, justice, mercy, joy and goodness known. 

I think about the stability of the church and our synergy. What makes us stable enough to hold up under pressure? How do we continue to think of the interdependence of our mystical body in a world that is full of so many dangers, in societies where governments, religions, households and individuals are not functioning wholistically? 

The idea of a triune Godhead is not explicitly interpreted in the bible. The Trinity was officially formulated (three persons in one being) at the Council of Nicea in 325 CE. Elizabeth Johnson writes that the God encountered in the concrete life of Jesus of Nazareth and was present in the spirit of the church and world “was transposed into an abstract, complex and literal and oppressive trinitarian theology. Salvation through Jesus Christ, Johnson noted, requires a view of God that leaves no one subordinate or silenced … we must think of the Trinity with liberating power.” [2]

The mystery of the Trinity invites us to see ourselves as part of a divine triangle that functions, that provides stability in a very fragile shaky world environment. In Richard Rohr’s words, eventually we get the courage to say, “I am a little part of that which I am seeking. In this moment, the idea of God as transcendent shifts to the realization that God is imminent.” [3]

Like a triangle, God is a stable foundation in our lives that provides you and me with the wisdom and strength to stand up against all injustices. How do we know and place our faith in this God? We can count on the witness of God in Jesus Christ. We read in the gospel that the spirit of God provides everything we need to experience how God works in our lives. God is not done yet and cannot be stuck in time. “The Spirit constantly updates our understanding of the once-for-all revelation of God in the Christ-event.” [4] 

Recognizing the spirit flowing in one another is very important for the stability of the church. It is a spirit that is not reserved only to a few privileged members but one that moves freely in and through each one of us and our life experiences. Nobel Laureate Svetlana Alexievich calls it “The everyday life of the soul (feelings, thoughts and words), the things that the big picture of history usually omits, or disdains.” Sadly some church leaders do the same by overlooking the ways the Spirit guides everyone.

Carl Elefante, FAIA (the next president of the American Institute of Architects) spoke recently about how architecture influences behavior, how it shapes human performance, productivity, well-being, and health. He said “we don’t have to seek relevance but seize it.” So too, we who make up the church, fashioned after a triune God, can shape human performance, productivity, well being and health. All we have to do is discover anew every day how God exists in our own lives, grab hold of it and then share it with others.


  1.  Fuller, Buckminster. No More Secondhand God (Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois Univ Press,1963)
  2.  Johnson, Elizabeth. Quest for the Living God: Mapping Frontiers in the Theology of God. ( NY: Continuum) 2008, 208-9
  3.  Rohr, Richard. Everything Belongs: The Gift of Contemplative Prayer. (NY: Crossroad Book, 2003) Adapted in part.
  4.  Reginald H. Fuller and Daniel Westberg. Preaching the Lectionary:The Word of God for the Church Today. (Collegeville: Liturgical Press. 1984 (Revised Edition),  442-443.


Homily – Pentecost – 15 May 2016 – The Function of the Church

Pentecost iconPentecost Sunday C – 15 May 2016 – The Function of the Church

Click here for today’s scriptures

Irish rock star Paul David Hewson (aka Bono) recently advocated for a faith filled with skepticism and a deep yearning for answers. He said the only way we can approach God is, if we’re honest, through metaphors and through symbols. So art becomes essential, not decorative, he said. 

In our religion we use words, movements, gestures, music, art and architecture to launch us into an experience of God and a concern for the needs of one another. Ordinary things like fire, bread, wine, water and oil help us embody the Creator Spirit still at work in the universe. Elizabeth Johnson believes that Spirit is “within and around the emerging, struggling, living, dying and renewing circle of life and the whole universe itself.” [1]

Today we begin a post-Easter trilogy of feasts (Pentecost, the Holy Trinity and the Body and Blood of Christ). Thinking about what the musician Bono said — that all the arts are essential in our approach to God — I see architecture as an artistic framework for helping us grow more deeply in our relationships with God and each other.

The first century master builder Marcus Vitruvius Pollio described buildings as functional, stable and beautiful. I invite you today and the next two Sundays to imagine with me Pentecost as an example of a functional church, the Holy Trinity as an expression of a stable church and the feast of the body and blood of Christ as a reflection of a beautiful church.

Pentecost began as a Jewish feast also known as Shavuot. It still is a time when Jews gather to thank God for the fruits of the harvest, the giving of the Laws at Mt. Sinai and the establishment of Israel as God’s people. In the Christian context the celebration of Pentecost marks the establishment of the church, its foundation and its expansion. That early church was not intended to be an exclusive club but a supportive community for everyone regardless of what they looked like, what language they spoke or where they lived. 

In order to develop and survive, the first century church had to function efficiently and with tenacity. Today’s second reading reports that the founding members used one another’s skills, gifts and talents to advance the mission of Jesus. And, they were all given to drink of one Spirit. That same Spirit moves the church and makes each Christian a person, different from [one] another, but who also creates unity among everyone. (Pope Francis, May 19, 2016)

Scripture scholar John Kavanaugh reminds us that “The “catholic” dimension is holistic, organic, and integral. We come from a people whose encounter with Jesus Christ is inclusive and capacious.” [2] There is room for everyone in the church. When someone is denied the freedom to develop his or her gifts, the common good of the church will suffer. [3] 

The many different languages described in today’s texts suggest that all of our voices are very important in advocating for the unity, equality, justice and peace that Jesus dreamed of. Each of us is entrusted to bring that vision into reality — by loving God and our neighbors as ourselves. 

Pentecost is about a liberated future that God has promised. In the words of theologian Walter Brueggemann, “What a stunning vocation for the church, to stand free and hopeful in a world gone fearful … and to think, imagine, dream, vision a future that God will yet enact.” [4]

Today we celebrate our confidence that, with our help, the holy Spirit can eliminate boundaries that keep us from living freely and without fear. That holy Spirit, with our help, can tear down walls that separate us from one another and our dreams. 

That same Spirit has the strength to rebuild faith filled communities like ours to provide shelter, food and companionship for others who desperately need us. With that Spirit guiding us we can learn to function together as a church, a community that is constantly evolving as a witness of possibility, freedom and justice for each and every human being.


  1.  Johnson, Elizabeth. Quest for the Living God: Mapping Frontiers in the Theology of God. ( NY: Continuum) 2008, 189.
  2.  Kavanaugh, John F. The Word Encountered: Meditations on the Sunday Scriptures. (Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1996) 72-74.
  3.  Karban, Roger. “Holy Spirit, Always Causing Confusion.” The Evangelist. May 12, 2016, p.8
  4.  Florence, Anna Carter (Ed.) Inscribing the Text: Sermons and Prayers of Walter Brueggemann (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2011) 115-16.

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Homily – 6th Sunday of Easter – 1 May 2016 – “Unity Not Conflict”

Easter Eggs

Sixth Sunday of Easter C – May 1, 2016 – “Unity Not Conflict”

Click here for today’s scriptures

The presidential campaign has glaringly uncovered the ways in which we the citizens in these United States are not united on assorted issues especially ones that deal with basic human rights.

And, we Christians are divided on issues as well. For one example, Orthodox Christians are celebrating Easter today, five weeks after we did! Our conflicting calendars lay bare what has been known for a long time as the “scandal of Christianity.” How important is this concern?

In 1997 the World Council of Churches asserted that to celebrate this fundamental aspect of the Christian faith, the resurrection of Jesus Christ, on different dates, gives a divided witness. It compromises the credibility and effectiveness of our churches in bringing the gospel to the world.

As noted in today’s first reading, the Apostolic Conference in Jerusalem in the year 50 CE also dealt with issues that were divisive. The concern was not about the movable date of Easter. Rather, some Jewish-Christians from Jerusalem insisted that Gentile-Christians from Syria must follow the Mosaic law about circumcision and other Levitical codes.

Right from the start, Christians argued over what they believed to be the fundamental teachings of their emerging religion. Not only does a bitter sweet history list disputes among early Christian movements but also, eventually, whether to wage brutal wars against other Christians and people of different faiths. Church leaders frequently developed doctrines to distinguish Christianity from other religions and to counter what they considered to be heretical campaigns.

The desire to strengthen the unique identities of respective churches continues to thwart unity. In the words of Andrew Sullivan Christianity today is in crisis. Instead of focusing on the “truly radical ideas” Jesus had, Christians are using religion as a tool to advance their own political and moral agendas. In doing so religious leaders attempt to “consume and influence every aspect of public life.”

In the gospel today we heard a part of Jesus’ farewell address to his followers. He said a Spirit will eventually emerge to fire up their passions, remind them of his teachings and guide them in their missionary work. Also,  he said, the peace he gave is not what the world gives. Jesus was not interested in stressing any complex doctrines. Instead, he did not want his followers to forget his primary focus: to treat people equally with mercy.

As it was then it is hard now to know exactly what to do when our church teachings do not adequately help us respond to present day situations. Traditionally, it is believed that a deity will provide guidance. However unless we have a direct line of contact with that deity we have to rely on others (rabbis, imams, priests, prophets, catechists and others) to interpret the social codes for us. [1]

Church doctrines that were written a long time ago do change over time but ever so slowly. The unfinished business of the Vatican Two Ecumenical Council is a good example. We have to continuously reinterpret the principles presented at that Council in light of today’s challenges. The same would be true of doctrines developed in the Middle Ages. They, too, need fresh explanations.

Francis, bishop of Rome, is doing exactly that. He has been called a “stealth reformer.” Flying beneath prickly doctrinal arguments he is showing us that mercy must trump doctrine. The life of Jesus is the example of what matters most today — how we respect one another especially those who are different from us.

Our divisions with the Orthodox church and other Christian denominations are complicated and stem mostly from age old doctrinal disagreements. On the other hand, in principle, there is no disagreement among us in terms of serving people who live on the fringes of society. There is a message here.

Emboldened by the Spirit Jesus left us, we can be ministers of peace and unity at home and everywhere we roam. We can cultivate further ways to join other Christians and people of other faiths in works of mercy and friendly dialog. With an emphasis on our common mission rather than rules we will discover and, in Pope Francis’  words, “unity is greater than conflict.” (Laudato ‘Si, IV, 198). 


1. Finch, Jonathan. A Crisis of Belief, Ethics and Faith. (NY: Univ. Press of America) 2016, 33

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Homily – Fourth Sunday of Easter – 17 April 2016 – “What to Vote For”

The Fourth Sunday of Easter C – April 17, 2016 – What To Vote For?

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In the Easter season we hear gospel stories about the post-resurrection appearances of Jesus. Some followers questioned those visions while others gained inspiration to press forward in the name of Christ. We also read from the Acts of the Apostles which contain non-historical homilies and letters about the joys and struggles of early Christian movements.

Today in the Gospel of John we heard about Jesus the good shepherd. Earlier in this gospel Jesus is called a gateway to salvation, a doorway to endless opportunities. This good shepherd story is more about the sheep and their alliance to the shepherd. Some say it is based on the loving association Jesus had with the one he called Father. 

This parable prompts us to think about our relationship with God and one another, near and far. How do we get along as members of the human flock where some advance forward while others cannot? In the Joy of Love, Pope Francis refers to Jesus as a shepherd who reaches out to every member of the flock, a reference to the human family. “It will become possible,” the Pope writes, “for the balm of mercy to reach everyone, believers and those far away, as a sign that the kingdom of God is already present in our midst.” (No. 309)

Also, during this Eastertide, we read from the prophetic Book of Revelation more so than in any other liturgical year. The author, John of Patmos, a victim of persecution, writes about the invisible forces and spiritual powers at work on earth and in heaven. 

The Book contains letters from the risen Christ addressed to seven churches in Asia regarding the corruption in those regions. Timothy Radcliffe Johnson, a Christian origins scholar, wrote that the visions include the experiences of those who are marginalized and oppressed by the the dominant society. [1] Today’s passage, for example,  promises that no one will go hungry or thirsty in the future.

According to scripture scholar Robin Whitaker this is a highly charged political text. At that time it competed head to head with the Roman empire known for the unjust ways it treated people living on the fringes of society. The Lamb of God takes the place of the Emperor. [2]

In this apocalyptic Book, the conflicts of the nations are altered by the sovereign power of God who works through Christ. Although slain by the state, Christ is the liberator from all evil. We visualize Jesus Christ, the lamb of God, the good shepherd, a prophetic witness for justice, as a model for us.

How do we model a Christian spirit for others? Last week we wrote letters to our elected officials asking them to stop hunger around the world. This coming Tuesday April 19, 2016, the New York State Presidential Primary presents another opportunity for us to act. We have the responsibility to vote.

The Catholic bishops in this country have published a guide on how to shape our consciences as faithful citizens. The bishops ask us to ponder our nation’s domestic and foreign policies and the promises of the different candidates. They advise against selecting parts of our church’s teachings in order to advance partisan interests or validate ideological biases. The entire instruction is available online. There is also a link on our parish website and my blog.

The bishops instruction is based on four principles of Catholic social teaching — human dignity, subsidiarity, solidarity and the common good. These words are not just casual concepts. They are precisely about basic human needs and the freedom all people should have to pursue opportunities. 

However we vote we are making choices. Our ballot can advance strategies for achieving harmony in this nation and in other parts of the world. Our vote can make a difference in the ways you and I live and it can move legislation to provide for those struggling to survive everyday. Do not forget to vote.


  1.  Radcliffe, LT. The Revelatory Body: Theology as Inductive Art. (Grand Rapids: Wm Eerdmans) 2015, p. 43
  2.  Whitaker, Robin. Notes from a class on the Book of Revelation, Union Theological Seminary, New York, NY February 18, 2016

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Homily – Third Sunday of Easter – 10 April 2016 – “Got Anything To Eat?”

hunger copyThird Sunday of Easter C – April 10, 2016 – Got Anything to Eat?

Click here for today’s scriptures

“Food, Glorious Food,” is the opening song in the musical Oliver! The play is about young Oliver Twist and his difficult life in Victorian London. Fed daily with meager dishes of gruel the workhouse boys sing the song dreaming and fantasizing about food. Oliver got into trouble when he demanded a second helping. [1]

With a huge growth in population in 19th century London crime and unemployment were high. There was a housing shortage, poor sanitary conditions and children were sent away to work dangerous jobs. Psalm 30 for today’s liturgy “I will praise you God for you have rescued me” may have been a wishful prayer at that time.

A similar story could be written today as people try to survive in the favelas in Brazil, the shanties in India, the ghettoes in Appalachia or even the small run-down towns in upstate New York. The exploited children in the story could be living in dilapidated shacks in Syria or South Sudan or the makeshift tents in Turkey and Greece where refugees await their fate. Humanitarian conditions in many parts of the world are nearing irreversible deterioration. 

In 19th century London philanthropic individuals and agencies began to address the plight in their cities. Today international agencies are working with nation states to end food insecurity which is the number one cause of terrorism, drug cartels, child trafficking and murder. According to a report from Bread for the World nearly half of all childhood deaths before the age of five are caused by malnutrition.

In John’s gospel Jesus appears to the apostles and the first words out of his mouth are “do you have anything to eat?” Presumed to be the first post resurrection appearance of Christ to his disciples, it is as if Christ had forgotten something. He neglected to remind his followers of a very important part of their mission if they were to pick up where he left off. 

Jesus questions Peter three times, “Do you love me?” Peter responds, “Of course I love you.” Jesus then challenges Peter and others within earshot, “Well then, feed my lambs, feed my sheep.” These are obvious references not to animals but to human beings. As Dorothy Day wrote, the disciples doubted the resurrection until Jesus asked them for something to eat. [2]

Spiritual hunger can take a toll on us. However, going to bed night after night on an empty stomach can lead to despair, sickness and death. The prophet Isaiah reminded us to seek justice and share our food with hungry people (Isaiah 56-58). Next Sunday we will read in the Book of Revelation — every nation, race, people, and tongue will not hunger or thirst anymore (Rev. 7:9-16).

Jesus entrusted Peter and the disciples with the pastoral care of God’s people. As baptized members of the priesthood of Christ, we also share this responsibility.  In his new letter, “The Joy of Love,” Pope Francis exhorts us not to forget that the mysticism of the sacrament [of the eucharist which we celebrate almost everyday] has a communal character. It reinforces our “social consciousness and … commitment to those in need.” (187)

This weekend you and I have an opportunity to support robust funding for nutrition and health for mothers and children around the world. By our letter writing campaign today (April 10, 2016) we can urge our elected officials to reform the ways our government provides food aid everywhere. We can press Congress to allocate $230 million dollars for global nutrition programs and to pass the Global Food Security Act of 2016.

Toward the end of the song in Oliver the workhouse boys sing, “Food, glorious food! What wouldn’t we give for that extra bit more.” Jesus wanted something to eat. You and I want something to eat and so too do many men, women and children on this fragile planet want an “extra bit more” to eat. Our food pantry serves the local community. You and I can help to spread that mission, that act of mercy, on a global level.


 1. Composed by Lionel Bart for the 1960s West End and Broadway musical Oliver! The show was based on the second novel by Charles Dickens, Oliver Twist, written between 1837-39.

 2. The Catholic Worker, April 1964


Homily for Easter 2016 “Go Ahead. Eat the Apple!”

Easter C – March 26-27, 2016 – “Go Ahead. Eat the Apple!”

Click here for the Easter Vigil scriptures

Click here for the Easter Sunday scriptures

Easter — a cosmic earthy festival. The word itself is derived from Oestre, a mythical goddess of sunrise and spring. In Pope Francis’ words this weekend “we celebrate Christ Risen, the centre and the purpose of the cosmos and of history.”

Our story of salvation begins with God, two people, and a snake. The narrative continues in the Hebrew bible — how God created everything, mercifully saved Isaac, protected and liberated the Israelites, loved and forgave those who sin. On the new testament side we heard that those who trust in God, accept Christ as a model for living and abide by a Spirit-filled energy will be rewarded with eternal life.

We know that the story about creation, Adam and Eve and the snake is a fantastical myth that eludes proof. The legend however helps us to think about making choices in life. Adam and Eve chose to eat from the tree of knowledge thinking it would offer them more possibilities for living. 

Supposing Eve and Adam never ate that apple? Would they and generations to follow live in paradise forever? There would be no original sin or centuries of sinfulness? The flood would not have happened. The Exodus story would make no sense. Jesus would have had no mission. His death and resurrection would have been unnecessary.

What would the world look like today if Adam and Eve did not bite? The global stage would be free of endless, senseless wars. People of color would not be shunned. Women would be treated equally with men. There would be income equity for all classes. Family life would be without quarrels. We would not pollute the earth. Religion would hold no power over people.

But Adam and Eve did bite the apple and now you and I have to make choices of our own. Are we free to do so or are we puppets in the hands of God? Did Adam and Eve have any choice or did the story set us up to think less of ourselves and the world we live in thus preparing the way for a deity who would save us? 

In a provocative essay the author John Gray proposes that when compared with humans, the life of the puppet looks more like an enviable state of freedom. [1] His argument is that marionettes do not have a conscience, they dance above the ground and do not have to worry about what steps they take.

In Gray’s words, instead of becoming an unfaltering puppet we make our way in the stumbling human world. That had to have been the experience of Jesus of Nazareth. He chose the messiness of life, he practiced mercy and justice and died for his convictions. In doing so he left us with a challenge.

What choices do we make that affect not only our lives but those of others? How does our faith in a risen Christ make a difference in society today?

God saw every aspect of creation good — day and night, land and sea, animals and plants, man and woman.“History is no longer meaningless and largely a failure, writes Richard Rohr, but has a promised and positive direction. This creates very healthy, happy, hopeful, and generative people; and we surely need some now. All I know for sure, Rohr writes, is that a good God creates and continues to create an ever good world.” [2]

Go ahead take a big bite of the apple knowing that together we are strong enough to embrace our part in the struggle to make the world a better place.


1. Gray, John. The Soul of the Marionette. (NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux) 2015

2. Rohr, R. “God’s Victory” <>


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